Born in Barmen on November 28, 1820. Took up commerce and worked as an office clerk from 1837 to 1841, first in Barmen and from 1838 in Bremen. After serving for a year as an army volunteer (1841-42), he joined his father's business in Manchester in 1843, staying there until 1844. From 1845 to 1848 he lived in Brussels (with K. Marx) and, alternately, in Paris; from 1848 to May 1849 he worked for the Neue Rheinische Zeitung in Cologne. In June and July of that year he took part in the uprising in South Germany as an aide-de-camp in Willich's volunteer corps. Then he went to London for a short time and, in 1850, rejoined his father's concern in Manchester, working first as a clerk and, from 1864, as a joint proprietor. In 1869 he retired from business for good. He has lived in London since 1870.
Of his works we shall mention the following:
"Umrisse zu einer Kritik der National-ökonomie" (in Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher, published by Ruge and Marx, Paris, 1844 (Issues 1 and 2), pp. 86-114; reprinted in Die Neue Zeit, IX Jahrgang 1890/91, Bd. 1, p. 236 et seq.).
(Jointly with Karl Marx.) Die Heilige Familie oder Kritik der kritischen Kritik Gegen Bruno Bauer und Konsorten, F. E. und K. M. Frankfurt a. M., 1845.
Die Lage der arbeitenden Klasse in England, Leipzig, 1845 (English translation, New York, 1887).
(Jointly with Karl Marx , anonymously.) Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei, London, 1848 (also in French, Spanish, Italian, Danish, Russian, Polish, English).
(Worked as coeditor, editor-in-chief respectively (substituting Marx) in Neue Rheinische Zeitung, 1848-1849 in Cologne and in Neue Rheinische Zeitung. Revue, 1850 in London.)
(Anonymously.) Po und Rhein, Berlin, 1859.
(Anonymously.) Savoyen, Nizza und der Rhein, Berlin, 1860.
"Die Preussische Militarfrage und die deutsche Arbeiterpartei", Hamburg, 1865, Der deutsche Bauerkrieg. (Reprinted from Neue Rheinische Zeitung. Revue.) Leipzig, three editions, the latest of 1875.
Zur Wohnungsfrage. Three issues, 1st edition, Leipzig, 1872, 2nd edition, Zurich, 1887.
Soziales aus Russland, Leipzig, 1875.
(Anonymously.) Preussische Schnaps in Deutschen Reichstag, Leipzig, 1876.
Die Bakunisten an der Arbeit. Denkschrift uber den Aufstand in Spanien, Leipzig, 1873.
Herr Eugen Duehring's Umw?lzung der Wissenschaft, 1st edition, Leipzig, 1878, 2nd edition, Zurich, 1886.
Die Entwicklung des Sozialismus von der Utopie zur Wissenschaft, 1st, 2nd, 3rd editions, Zurich, 1883, 4th edition, prepared for publication, Berlin, 1891 (also in French, Russian, Polish, Italian, Spanish, Romanian, Dutch, Danish).
Der Ursprung der Familie, des Privateigenthums und des Staats. Im Anschluss an Lewis H. Morgan's Forschungen, Zurich, 1884, 3rd edition, Stuttgart, 1889 (also in Italian, Romanian, Danish; French edition under preparation).
Ludwig Feuerbach und der Ausgang der klassischen deutschen Philosophie, Stuttgart, 1888.
"Die ausw?rtige Politik des russischen Zarenthums" (in Die Neue Zeit, VIII Jahrgang, 1889/90, Bd. II; also in Russian, English, French, Romanian).
Ueber den B?rgerkrieg in Frankreich (in Die Neue Zeit, IX Jahrgang, 1890/91, Bd. 11, p. 33 et seqq.).
In Sachen Brentano contra Marx wegen angeblicher Zitatsf?lschung. Geschichtserz?lung und Dokumente, Hamburg, 1891.
Besides he prepared for publication the following works to which he wrote introductions and prefaces;
I. In German:
K. Marx. "Das Kapital". Vol. 1, 3rd edition, 1883; 4th edition, 1890 (Preface about Brentano). Also, Vol. II (Preface about Rodbertus), 1885.
K. Marx. Das Elend der Philosophie. Deutsch von Bernstein und Kautsky. Stuttgart, 1885 (Preface about Rodbertus).
K. Marx. Vor den K?lner Geschwornen. 1849, Zurich, 1885 (Preface).
K. Marx. Enth?llungen ?ber den Kommunisten-Prozess zu K?ln. 1852, Zurich, 1885 (Introduction: "Zur Geschichte des 'Bundes der Kommunisten").
W. Wolf. Die Schlesische Milliarde. Zurich, 1886. (Introduction: Biography of Wolf and "Zur Geschichte der preussischen Bauern").
S. Borkheim. Zur Erinnerung fur die deutschen Mordspatrioten. Zurich, 1888 (Introduction: Biography of Borkheim).
K. Marx. Lohnarbeit und Kapital (Introduction). Berlin, 1891.
II. In English:
K. Marx. Capital. Translated by S. Moore & E. Aveling, published by F. Engels, London, 1887 (edited translation and wrote a preface).
K. Marx. "Free Trade". A Speech delivered in Brussels in 1848. Translated by F. Kelly-Wischnewetzky, Boston and London, 1888 (Introduction on Free Trade, published in German in Die Neue Zeit).
F. Engels. The Condition of the Working-Class in England in 1844. Translated by F. K. Wischnewetzky. New York, 1887 (Preface and Appendix, the latter was published also as a separate edition: "The Working Class Movement in America"; in German: "Die Arbeiterbewegung in Amerika", New York, 1887; reprinted in English, London, 1887. In German also in Die Neue Zeit).
First published in the encyclopaedic dictionary
Handworterbuch der Staatswissenschaften
Vol. 3, Jena, 1892
The proletariat is that class in society which lives entirely from the sale of its labor and does not draw profit from any kind of capital; whose weal and woe, whose life and death, whose sole existence depends on the demand for labor -- hence, on the changing state of business, on the vagaries of unbridled competition. The proletariat, or the class of proletarians, is, in a word, the working class of the 19th century. (1847).
Modern Socialism is, in its essence, the direct product of the recognition, on the one hand, of the class antagonisms existing in the society of today between proprietors and non-proprietors, between capitalists and wage-workers; on the other hand, of the anarchy existing in production. (1880).
Political economy came into being as a natural result of the expansion of trade, and with its appearance elementary, unscientific huckstering was replaced by a developed system of licensed fraud, an entire science of enrichment. This political economy or science of enrichment born of the merchants' mutual envy and greed, bears on its brow the mark of the most detestable selfishness. (1843).
Authority, in the sense in which the word is used here, means: the imposition of the will of another upon ours; on the other hand, authority presupposes subordination. Now, since these two words sound bad, and the relationship which they represent is disagreeable to the subordinated party, the question is to ascertain whether there is any way of dispensing with it, ... , and would consequently have to disappear. (1872).
As the 1870s drew to a close, the temporary peace between the English classes grew shakey. The Great Depression of the 1870s swept the western world and was, as always, particularly rough on the proletariat. The capitalist cycle downturn set in motion familiar attacks by the capitalist class against what reformist compromises within the capitalist system existed. (1881).