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WEB SITES
DESCRIPTIONS
A site dedicated to democratic changes in Lao. The site publishes articles, commentary and links to informative publications related to Lao.
Headlines concerning Lao and commentary articles on Lao's democratic movement.
A site dedicated to the student uprising in Lao. The site also contains informative materials and links on Lao.
Non-profit organization in opposition to the human rights violations against Lao and Hmong people in Laos and refugees in Thailand
The official representative of the Lao PDR in Washington, DC. The site contains consular information and dated documents on Lao.
The Guide to Law Online is an annotated compendium of sources accessible through the Internet. Links provide access to primary documents, legal commentary, and general government information about specific jurisdictions and topics.
A group of dedicated volunteers who are against the inclusion of 'minority' and religious exhibits at the Chinese Communist Party owned and operated Florida Splendid China theme park in Kissimmee, Florida

The Free Cuba Foundation is a non-profit, and non-partisan organization whose purpose is to work towards the establishment of an independent and democratic Cuba

A site dedicated to the struggle for democracy in Vietnam.
Since its inception, the Free Vietnam Alliance has been actively participating in the national endeavor for peaceful changes in Vietnam. Its work along with other democratic forces has created endless pressure upon the Hanoi government.

Personal homepage of an American Cambodian. Site contains a number of links to academic papers on Cambodia.

Research database.  Country information of all countries in the world.
Begun operationon the roof=top in Saigon. It then had a base in Udon.  This is the dare devil of "first in, last out" operation under the auspices of the CIA. The site has an achieve of operations' photo in LAOS.


NOTA BENE
THE INFORMATION BELOW REPRESENTS THE CURRENT
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL SITUATION IN LAO.
The graphic representation below is used for illustrative purposes only. We do not endorse nor support of any system of government, and any person or group whose intent and conduct do not advance the cause of the Lao people and nurture democracy in Lao.

THE LAO GOVERNMENT
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Administrative divisions: 16 provinces (khoueng, singular and plural), 1 municipality* (kampheng nakhon, singular and plural), and 1 special zone** (khetphiset, singular and plural); Attapu, Bokeo, Bolikhamxai, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouan, Louangnamtha, Louangphabang, Oudomxai, Phongsali, Salavan, Savannakhet, Viangchan*, Viangchan, Xaignabouli, Xaisomboun**, Xekong, Xiangkhoang
Independence: 19 July 1949 (from France)
National holiday: National Day, 2 December (1975) (proclamation of the Lao People's Democratic Republic)
Constitution: promulgated 14 August 1991
Legal system: based on traditional customs, French legal norms and procedures, and Socialist practice
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President KHAMTAI Siphandon (since 26 February 1998); Vice President OUDOM Khattiya (since 26 February 1998)
head of government: Prime Minister SISAVAT Keobounphan (since 26 February 1998); Senior Deputy Prime Minister BOUNGNANG Volachit (since 20 April 1996); Deputy Prime Ministers KHAMPHOUI Keoboualapha (since 15 August 1991), CHOUMMALI Saignason (since 26 February 1998), SOMSAVAT Lengsavad (since 26 February 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the National Assembly
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 21 December 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); prime minister appointed by the president with the approval of the National Assembly for a five-year term
election results: KHAMTAI Siphandon elected president; percent of National Assembly vote—NA
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (99 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; note—by presidential decree, on 27 October 1997, the number of seats increased from 85 to 99)
elections: last held 21 December 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party—NA; seats by party—LPRP or LPRP-approved (independent, non-party members) 99
Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court, the president of the People's Supreme Court is elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the National Assembly Standing Committee, the vice president of the People's Supreme Court and the judges are appointed by the National Assembly Standing Committee
Political parties and leaders: Lao People's Revolutionary Party or LPRP [KHAMTAI Siphandon, party president]; other parties proscribed
Political pressure groups and leaders: noncommunist political groups proscribed; most opposition leaders fled the country in 1975
International organization participation: ACCT, AsDB, ASEAN, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador VANG Rattanavong
chancery: 2222 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-6416
FAX: [1] (202) 332-4923
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Wendy Jean CHAMBERLIN
embassy: Rue Bartholonie, B.P. 114, Vientiane
mailing address: American Embassy, Box V, APO AP 96546
telephone: [856] (21) 212581, 212582, 212585
FAX: [856] (21) 212584

THE LAO ECONOMY
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GDP: purchasing power parity—$6.6 billion (1998 est.)
GDP—real growth rate: 4% (1998 est.)
GDP—per capita: purchasing power parity—$1,260 (1998 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:
agriculture: 51%
industry: 21%
services: 28% (1998 est.)
Population below poverty line: 46.1% (1993 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.2%
highest 10%: 26.4% (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 112% (1998 est.)
Labor force: 1 million-1.5 million
Labor force—by occupation: agriculture 80% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate: 5.7% (1997 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $230.2 million
expenditures: $365.9 million, including capital expenditures of $317 million (1996)
Industries: tin and gypsum mining, timber, electric power, agricultural processing, construction, garments
Industrial production growth rate: 8.9% (1998 est.)
Electricity—production: 900 million kWh (1996)
Electricity—production by source:
fossil fuel: 0.04%
hydro: 99.96%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)
Electricity—consumption: 287 million kWh (1996)
Electricity—exports: 640 million kWh (1996)
Electricity—imports: 27 million kWh (1996)
Agriculture—products: sweet potatoes, vegetables, corn, coffee, sugarcane, tobacco, cotton; water buffalo, pigs, cattle, poultry
Exports: $330 million (f.o.b., 1998)
Exports—commodities: wood products, garments, electricity, coffee, tin
Exports—partners: Vietnam, Thailand, Germany, France
Imports: $630 million (c.i.f., 1998)
Imports—commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel
Imports—partners: Thailand, Japan, Vietnam, China, Singapore
Debt—external: $1.2 billion (1996)
Economic aid—recipient: $290 million (1998)
Currency: 1 new kip (NK) = 100 at
Exchange rates: new kips (NK) per US$1—4,217 (January 1999), 3,299.21 (1998), 1,256.73 (1997), 921.14 (1996), 804.69 (1995), 717.67 (1994)
note: as of September 1995, a floating exchange rate policy was adopted
Fiscal year: 1 October—30 September


THE LAO MILITARY
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Military branches: Lao People's Army (LPA; includes militia element), Lao People's Navy (LPN; includes riverine element), Air Force, National Police Department
Military manpower—military age: 18 years of age
Military manpower—availability:
males age 15-49: 1,200,664 (1999 est.)
Military manpower—fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 648,087 (1999 est.)
Military manpower—reaching military age annually:
males: 57,047 (1999 est.)
Military expenditures—dollar figure: $77.4 million (FY96/97)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP: 4.2% (FY96/97)


Head of State
President and Chairman of the People's Supreme Council: Gen. Khamtay Siphandone
Birthdate: February 8, 1924 in Khang District of Champasak.
Political Party: Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP).
Political Career: Participant in Revolution (1947); Member, Lao Freedom Front Central Committee (1952); Indochinese Communist Party Chief of Staff (1954); Lao Communist Party (1956); Head of Military Affairs and Commander-in-chief of resistance forces (1960); Member of Politburo (LPRP) (1972); Commander-in-Chief of Army for until 1975; Deputy Premier and Minister of Defense (1975-91); Prime Minister (August 1991-February 24, 1998); re-elected Chairman of the LRPR Central Committee (March 1996); elected President by the National Assembly (February 24, 1998).
Office of the President
Lane Xang Avenue
Vientiane
Telephone: (+856 21) 214-207
Facsimile: (+856 21) 214-208
Government
Vice President ........ (vacant)
Prime Minister ........ Gen. Sisavath Keobounphanh
Minister, President's Office ........ Soubanh Srithirath
Minister and Chief of Cabinet Office ........ Saisomphone Phomvihane
Minister in the Prime Minister's Office ........ Khamsay Souphanouvong
Minister in the Prime Minister's Office ........ Bountien Phissamay
Minister in the Prime Minister's Office ........ Souli Nanthavong
Minister in the Prime Minister's Office ........ Xaysenglee Tengbliavue
Minister in the Prime Minister's Office ........ Somphavanh Inthavong
Deputy Prime Minister ........ Somsavat Lengsavad
Deputy Prime Minister ........ Lt. Gen. Choummaly Sayasone
Deputy Prime Minister ........ Boungyang Vorachith
Minister of Agriculture and Forestry ........ Siene Saphangthong
Minister of Commerce and Tourism ........ Phoumy Thipphavone
Minister of Construction, Transport, Posts and Communication ........ Phao Bounnaphon
Minister of Education and Sports ........ Phimmasone Leuangkhamma
Minister of Finance ........ Boungyang Vorachith
Minister of Foreign Affairs ........ Sisavat Lengsavad
Minister of Industry and Handicrafts ........ Soulivong Daravong
Minister of Information and Culture ........ Siteua Bounkham
Minister of Interior ........ Maj. Gen. Asang Laoli
Minister of Justice ........ Kham Ouane Boupha
Minister of Labor and Social Welfare ........ Somphan Phengkhammi
Minister of National Defense ........ Lt. Gen. Choummaly Sayasone
Minister of Public Health ........ Dr. Ponemek Daraloy
Minister, Chairman of State Planning Committee ........ Bouathong Vonglokam


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